How does a Pump Work? | Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages

In this article, I will explain in depth the different types of pumps. Therefore, the hydraulic device required to lift the fluid from a low level to a high level or to flow fluid from a low-pressure area to a high-pressure area or as a booster in a piping network system is called a pump.

The pump transforms the mechanical energy of water into pressure energy (hydraulic energy). The pumps can also be used in process operations that require high hydraulic pressures. It can be found on heavy-duty equipment. Often high-duty devices require high discharge pressure and low suction pressure. Due to the low pressure on the suction side of the pump, the fluid rises to a certain depth, while due to the high pressure on the discharge side of the pump, it pushes the fluid up until it reaches the desired height.

Types of Pumps

1) Dynamic pump

Dynamic pumps provide velocity and pressure as the fluid moves past or through the pump impeller. This pump converts that velocity into some additional pressure. These is also known as a kinetic pump.

1) Centrifugal pumps

These types of pumps widely utilize around the world. It has a very simple working. This pump is strong, efficient and very cheap to manufacture. As the pump operates, the fluid pressure increases from the pump inlet to its outlet. The change in pressure drives the fluid throughout the system.

 This type increases the power of the entire revolving impeller by transmitting mechanical energy from the electric motor to the fluid. The liquid flow enters the center of the impeller and exits with its blade. Centrifugal force increases the velocity of the fluid through it and can also convert kinetic energy into energy.

2) Axial flow Pumps

The flow through the impeller is parallel to the shaft axis with a low head and a very high discharge. Axial flow type pumps are used for medium head and high discharge.

In this centrifugal pump, pressure on the fluid develops by forcing or lifting the action of the vans of the impeller.

3) Positive Displacement Pump

In this, moving element (piston, plunger, rotor, lobe, or gear) displaces fluid from the pump’s casing (or cylinder) and, at the same time, increases the fluid pressure. Therefore, the displacement does not develop pressure; It only produces fluid flow.

4) Reciprocating Pumps

In a reciprocating pump, the piston or plunger moves up and down. During the suction stroke, the pump cylinder is filled with fresh fluid and the discharge stroke displaces into the discharge line through the check valve.

Mutual pumps increase the pressure a lot. Plunger, piston and diaphragm pumps fall under these types of pumps.

5) Plunger / Piston Pumps

This is a type of positive displacement pumps where the high force seal responds through the piston. The plunger has a crosshead, which is operated by a camshaft arrangement. The efficiency of these pumps can be adjusted by changing the stroke, the rotational speed of the pump or both. The stroke of the pump is changed by an abnormal pin setting.

This type of pump used for the application of sewage, sludge, drugs, clarifier hardening underflow. This can apply for transfer and metering service. Such pumps are available in single and multi-cylinder models. The piston pump is a type of positive displacement where the high force seal responds through the piston. These pumps often use in water irrigation, high, reliable pressures and in situations where delivery systems need to move chocolate, breads, paints, etc.

6) Diaphragm pumps

These types of pumps are very versatile and handle a wide variety of liquids such as food additives, chemicals, powders, solutions, herbal products, and wastewater. It can be used for applications that require zero leakage.

The applications of these pumps mainly include continuous applications such as common plants, industrial, and mining. AOD pumps operate especially where electricity is not available, otherwise in unstable and flammable areas. These diaphragm pumps also use to move chemicals, food preparation, and underground coal mines.

7) Peristaltic pump

Peristaltic pumps are also known as tube pumps and pneumatic pumps. These are a type of positive displacement pumps. The applications of these pumps are mainly involved in the processing of the chemical, food and water treatment industries. It creates a constant flow of measuring and mixing. This pump can pump a variety of liquids such as toothpaste and all kinds of chemicals. In air pumps, compressed air uses to move the fluid. In pneumatic ejectors, the compressed air increases from the gravity-affected pressure vessel to the time required to refill the tank or receiver through the check valve to the fluid into the discharge line.

Advantages of the Pumps

Here are some advantages:

  • There is no leakage in the pump as the drive is not closed.
  • Fr friction losses are very low.
  • It has simple structure.
  • These have quiet operation.
  • Minimal attire compared to others.

Disadvantages of the Pumps

  • Here are some disadvantages of pumping
  • Produce cavities.
  • Corrosion.
  • These cannot operate at high speeds.
  • Pump has priming problems

Applications of Pump

  • Pumps use in different chemical industries
  • Use in food industries
  • Use in oil industries to transfer oil
  • These also in sewage systems

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